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Analytical chemistry studies and uses instruments and methods used to separate, identify, and quantify matter] In practice separation, identification or quantification may constitute the entire analysis or be combined with another method. Separation isolates analyses. Qualitative analysis identifies analyses, while quantitative analysis determines the numerical amount or concentration.
Analytical chemistry consists of classical, wet chemical methods and modern, instrumental methods. Classical qualitative methods use separations such as precipitation, extraction, and distillation. Identification may be based on differences in color, odor, melting point, boiling point, radioactivity or reactivity. Classical quantitative analysis uses mass or volume changes to quantify amount. Instrumental methods may be used to separate samples using chromatography, electrophoresis or field flow fractionation. Then qualitative and quantitative analysis can be performed, often with the same instrument and may use light interaction, heat interaction, electric fields or magnetic fields. Often the same instrument can separate, identify and quantify an analytic.
Analytical chemistry is also focused on improvements in experimental design, chemo metrics, and the creation of new measurement tools. Analytical chemistry has broad applications to forensics, medicine, science and engineering.
Physical chemistry is the study of macroscopic, atomic, subatomic, and particulate phenomena in chemical systems in terms of the principles, practices, and concepts of physics such as motion, energy, force, time, thermodynamics, quantum chemistry, statistical mechanics, analytical dynamics and chemical equilibrium.
Physical chemistry, in contrast to chemical physics, is predominantly (but not always) a macroscopic or supra-molecular science, as the majority of the principles on which it was founded relate to the bulk rather than the molecular/atomic structure alone (for example, chemical equilibrium and colloids).
Biochemistry, sometimes called biological chemistry, is the study of chemical processes within and relating to living organisms. By controlling information flow through biochemical signaling and the flow of chemical energy through metabolism, biochemical processes give rise to the complexity of life. Over the last decades of the 20th century, biochemistry has become so successful at explaining living processes that now almost all areas of the life sciences from botany to medicine to genetics are engaged in biochemical research. Today, the main focus of pure biochemistry is on understanding how biological molecules give rise to the processes that occur within living cells, which in turn relates greatly to the study and understanding of tissues, organs, and whole organisms—that is, all of biology.
Organic chemistry is a chemistry subdiscipline involving the scientific study of the structure, properties, and reactions of organic compounds and organic materials, i.e., matter in its various forms that contain carbon atoms. Study of structure includes many physical and chemical methods to determine the chemical composition and the chemical constitution of organic compounds and materials. Study of properties includes both physical properties and chemical properties, and uses similar methods as well as methods to evaluate chemical reactivity, with the aim to understand the behavior of the organic matter in its pure form (when possible), but also in solutions, mixtures, and fabricated forms. The study of organic reactions includes probing their scope through use in preparation of target compounds (e.g., natural products, drugs, polymers, etc.) by chemical synthesis, as well as the focused study of the reactivities of individual organic molecules, both in the laboratory and via theoretical (in silico) study.
Inorganic chemistry deals with the synthesis and behavior of inorganic and organometallic compounds. This field covers all chemical compounds except the myriad organic compounds (carbon based compounds, usually containing C-H bonds), which are the subjects of organic chemistry. The distinction between the two disciplines is far from absolute, as there is much overlap in the subdiscipline of organometallic chemistry. It has applications in every aspect of the chemical industry, including catalysis, materials science, pigments, surfactants, coatings, medications, fuels, and agriculture.
Polymer chemistry is a chemistry subdiscipline that deals with the structures, chemical synthesis and properties of polymers, primarily synthetic polymers such as plastics and elastomers. Polymer chemistry is related to the broader field of polymer science, which also encompasses polymer physics and polymer engineering.
The chemist Hermann Staudinger first proposed that polymers consisted of long chains of atoms held together by covalent bonds, which he called macromolecules. His work expanded the chemical understanding of polymers and was followed by an expansion of the field of polymer chemistry during which such polymeric materials as neoprene, nylon and polyester were invented.According to the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC), macromolecules refer to the individual molecular chains and are the domain of chemistry. Polymers describe the bulk properties of polymer materials and belong to the field of polymer physics as a subfield of physics.
Electrochemistry is the branch of physical chemistry that studies the relationship between electricity, as a measurable and quantitative phenomenon, and identifiable chemical change, with either electricity considered an outcome of a particular chemical change or vice versa. These reactions involve electric charges moving between electrodes and an electrolyte (or ionic species in a solution). Thus electrochemistry deals with the interaction between electrical energy and chemical change.
When a chemical reaction is caused by an externally supplied current, as in electrolysis, or if an electric current is produced by a spontaneous chemical reaction as in a battery, it is called an electrochemical reaction. Chemical reactions where electrons are transferred directly between molecules and/or atoms are called oxidation-reduction or (redox) reactions. In general, electrochemistry describes the overall reactions when individual redox reactions are separate but connected by an external electric circuit and an intervening electrolyte.
Medicinal chemistry and pharmaceutical chemistry are disciplines at the intersection of chemistry, especially synthetic organic chemistry, and pharmacology and various other biological specialties, where they are involved with design, chemical synthesis and development for market of pharmaceutical agents, or bio-active molecules (drugs).
In particular, medicinal chemistry in its most common practice—focusing on small organic molecules—encompasses synthetic organic chemistry and aspects of natural products and computational chemistry in close combination with chemical biology, enzymology and structural biology, together aiming at the discovery and development of new therapeutic agents. Practically speaking, it involves chemical aspects of identification, and then systematic, thorough synthetic alteration of new chemical entities to make them suitable for therapeutic use. It includes synthetic and computational aspects of the study of existing drugs and agents in development in relation to their bioactivities (biological activities and properties), i.e., understanding their structure-activity relationships (SAR). Pharmaceutical chemistry is focused on quality aspects of medicines and aims to assure fitness for purpose of medicinal products..At the biological interface, medicinal chemistry combines to form a set of highly interdisciplinary sciences, setting its organic, physical, and computational emphases alongside biological areas such as biochemistry, molecular biology, pharmacognosy and pharmacology, toxicology and veterinary and human medicine; these, with project management, statistics, and pharmaceutical business practices, systematically oversee altering identified chemical agents such that after pharmaceutical formulation, they are safe and efficacious, and therefore suitable for use in treatment of disease.
Virtual chemistry here refers to molecules including both covalently bound compounds and ionic systems in a computer rather than in a laboratory. We try to predict properties of compounds using theoretical models that are calculated or simulated in a computer. The website features:
1)Results from classical molecular dynamics simulations of liquids with experimental data to compare results to.
2)GROMACS input files for simulations corresponding to the results. Currently three force fields are supported, CGenFF, GAFF and OPLS/AA. We provide validated input files in order to make sure that results based on these files are consistent with the force field used.
3)Results from gas-phase quantum chemistry calculations using a range of methods. At a later stage we will provide input files for reproducing these calculations as well.
4)A tool to make correlation plots between the available data sets.
Applied chemistry is the application of the principles and theories of chemistry to answer a specific question or solve a real-world problem, as opposed to pure chemistry, which is aimed at enhancing knowledge within the field.
Radiochemistry is the chemistry of radioactive materials, where radioactive isotopes of elements are used to study the properties and chemical reactions of non-radioactive isotopes (often within radiochemistry the absence of radioactivity leads to a substance being described as being inactive as the isotopes are stable). Much of radiochemistry deals with the use of radioactivity to study ordinary chemical reactions. This is very different from radiation chemistry where the radiation levels are kept too low to influence the chemistry.Radiochemistry includes the study of both natural and man-made radioisotopes. Nuclear chemistry is the subfield of chemistry dealing with radioactivity, nuclear processes, such as nuclear transmutation, and nuclear properties.
It is the chemistry of radioactive elements such as the actinides, radium and radon together with the chemistry associated with equipment (such as nuclear reactors) which are designed to perform nuclear processes. This includes the corrosion of surfaces and the behavior under conditions of both normal and abnormal operation (such as during an accident). An important area is the behavior of objects and materials after being placed into a nuclear waste storage or disposal site.
Food chemistry is the study of chemical processes and interactions of all biological and non-biological components of foods. The biological substances include such items as meat, poultry, lettuce, beer, and milk as examples. It is similar to biochemistry in its main components such as carbohydrates, lipids, and protein, but it also includes areas such as water, vitamins, minerals, enzymes, food additives, flavors, and colors. This discipline also encompasses how products change under certain food processing techniques and ways either to enhance or to prevent them from happening. An example of enhancing a process would be to encourage fermentation of dairy products with microorganisms that convert lactose to lactic acid; an example of preventing a process would be stopping the browning on the surface of freshly cut apples using lemon juice or other acidulated water.
Theoretical chemistry is the discipline that uses quantum mechanics, classical mechanics, and statistical mechanics to explain the structures and dynamics of chemical systems and to correlate, understand, and predict their thermodynamic and kinetic properties. Modern theoretical chemistry may be roughly divided into the study of chemical structure and the study of chemical dynamics. The former includes studies of: (a) electronic structure, potential energy surfaces, and force fields; (b) vibrational-rotational motion; and (c) equilibrium properties of condensed-phase systems and macro-molecules. Chemical dynamics includes: (a) bimolecular kinetics and the collision theory of reactions and energy transfer; (b) unimolecular rate theory and metastable states; and (c) condensed-phase and macromolecular aspects of dynamics.
Physical Chemistry is the branch of chemistry dealing with the physical properties of chemical substances. It is one of the traditional sub-disciplines of chemistry and is related with the application of the concepts and theories of physics to the study of the chemical properties and reactive behaviour of matter. Physical Chemistry of Macromolecules employs the combined principles of physical chemistry to define the behaviour, structure, and intermolecular effects of macromolecules in both solution and bulk states. It emphasizes the statistical measures of structure and weight distribution, and also discusses structural, dynamic, and optical properties of macromolecules in solution.
Biophysical chemistry is a physical science that uses the concepts of physics and physical chemistry for the study of biological systems. The most common feature of the research in this subject is to seek explanation of the various phenomena in biological systems in terms of either the molecules that make up the system or the supra-molecular structure of these systems. Biophysical chemists employ various techniques used in physical chemistry to probe the structure of biological systems. These techniques include spectroscopic methods such as nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and X-ray diffraction.
Thermochemistry is the study of the heat liberated or absorbed as a result of chemical reactions. It is a branch of thermodynamics and is used by a wide range of scientists and engineers. Thermochemistry focuses on these energy changes, particularly on the system's energy exchange with its surroundings. For example, biochemists use thermochemistry to understand bioenergetics, whereas chemical engineers apply thermochemistry to depict manufacturing plants. Chemical reactions involve the conversion of a set of substances inclusively referred to as "reactants" to a set of substances collectively referred to as "products."
The study of stereochemistry focuses on stereoisomers and spans the entire spectrum of organic, inorganic, biological, physical and especially supramolecular chemistry. Stereochemistry is the chemistry which deals with the different arrangement of atoms or groups in a molecule in space. Louis Pasteur was the first stereo chemist, having observed in 1849 from wine collected salts of tartaric acid production vessels could rotate plane polarized light, but that salts from other sources. The only physical property in which the two types of tartrate salts differed, is due to optical isomerism. Stereochemistry plays a very vital role in our day to day life. It has been observed that many living systems, plants and many pharmaceuticals possess or respond to only a particular type of arrangement in a molecule and are found to be stereospecific in nature, for example the double helical form of D.N.A turns in a right handed way, honey suckle winds as a left handed helix. Only one form of sugar plays a unique role in animal metabolism and is the basis of a multimillion dollar fermentation industry. Structural Isomers are isomers which have the same molecular formula but differ in their structures. The list of different types of structural isomers is position isomer, chain Isomers, metameric, and functional Isomers. Stereoisomers are isomers which have the same molecular formula and same structure but differ in the arrangement of atoms or groups in space. Stereoisomers can be classified into the following two types Conformational Isomers and Configurational Isomers.